A detailed guide to blockchain speed | TPS vs. time to finality | Solana, Aptos, Fantom & Avalanche compared — which chain has sub-second finality?

TPS vs. Time to Finality

Calculating TPS (transactions per second)

Time to Finality

Solana: a 2,000 tps network, but prone to blackouts

  • the White Paper states that 0.5 second is possible;
  • Reddit users report that swaps on Radium get confirmed in a couple of seconds, but others say that confirmation takes around 10 seconds;
  • Ava Labs’ Kevin Seqniki got 21 to 46 seconds in his own test.
Credit: Solend Twitter

Aptos: a 160,000 TPS blockchain with sub-second finality

  • Optimistic concurrency control: transactions are executed in parallel and then validated; in case of a validation issue, a transaction is aborted and re-executed, and all those that depend on it (higher transactions) are re-validated.
  • Collaborative scheduling: a way to schedule transaction execution in a way that no resources are wasted.
  • Lazy commit: all the transactions in a block are committed together.
  • On-chain reputation: an algorithm that automatically minimizes the negative effect of validators going down.


  1. the X-chain (from ‘exchange’),for issuing and trading assets;
  2. the P-chain,where the Snowman consensus ‘lives’ and where validators are coordinated;
  3. the C-chain, where smart contract interactions happen. It is compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), and if you use MetaMask to work with Avalanche, you’re working with the C-chain.

Fantom: the only top-10 chain with 1 second finality

Beware of ‘the fastest ever’ blockchains



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